Oz gave an Eastern Europe update; Romania, Georgia are in the ascendancy with so much to discover.
He then discusse new and revived grape varieties - Carignan, Garnacha - the CabSauv and Shiraz of the badlands of Spain. The Douro... Portugal
in future could become another of the great red wine nations simply because their grapes are already adapted to to hot weather!
I learned that Barolo was first created in 1843. Nebbiolo ripens so late and autumns were so cold, that the grapes were picked
unripe and then ruined by poor winery conditions. It has taken over 150 years to get to its current eminence.
Even in Bordeau the top Vineyards in St Emilion and Pomerol are planting different grapes and altering growing methods; moving away from
maximising yield using VSP (which Oz describes as a sugar machine) to bush planting because inefficient growing is needed to lessen ripening and reduce the sugar from 15%+ ABV, which is so high that it is hard to begin fermentation.
And in the UK, Chardonnay
is being grown on the limestone soils of Yorkshire; currently Castleford is making excellent wine. According to Denbies‘ geologist in a few years the Thames Valley will be growing raisins... warming of the Atlantic will possibly lead to eastern counties
such as Essex/Suffolk becoming more viable.